Friday, November 15, 2013

Knit in crochet work

Found this article about crochet work. Reading other period directions often crochet and knit were interchanged for crochet work.

The dollar weekly bulletin (Maysville, KY.) 21 April 1864
A Western paper notices a curious specimen of the handiwork of a Southern lady--a pair of knit pantaloons in crochet work. the work was firmly and neatly done, and the maker was Mrs. W.H.Mackie, of Columbia, Arkansas. During the blockade in that region, her husband needed a pair of pantaloons, and as there was no cloth to be had, she took her crochet needle, and with plenty of homespun yarn got up an article equal to anything a merchant tailor could turn out--handsome in appearance, and good for "three years or during the war."

Tuesday, October 15, 2013

Winter - Under Clothing

Ohio cultivator, December 1, 1861

Under Clothing for Winter
            Ladies seem to have a proclivity to being uncomfortable because it is the fashion; though we acknowledge, to a decided movement in the right direction, in thick shoes, water proof cloaks, and close sleeves to dresses. But one thing more if you please. the hoop skirt is a blessing in holding the long dress from the feet, and giving the limbs fair play, but they leave body and limbs too much exposed to cold; this may be remedied by wearing flannel drawers over the cambric ones, made of the dark opera flannel, and lined with canton flannel. Ladies at the east do this through all the severity of winter, and find one pair of such flannel drawers equal in warmth and protection to a half dozen loose, heavy skirts, which are expensive and require extra labor to keep them in order.
            Of course the fashionable belle who delights in embroideries, will not heed my advice, but the house-wife who goes to hen-house and barn-yard, who milks, makes butter, and goes to market; washes and irons—will only have to make one trial of close flannel drawers reaching down to the top of her boots, to find they are exceedingly comfortable, and great preventives to neuralgia and toothache and rheumatism. I have worn them for years, and wonder how any woman can keep warm without them.

Saturday, October 5, 2013

Crochet or not to crochet (Pre-1865)

I know how to crocheted, but rarely do it. I enjoy knitting most of the time, period goods for reenacting. I know many reenactors who do not either like knitting or only know how to crochet. Knitting was more common over crochet. When someone posts a picture of their current knit garment another person will ask if they were ever done in crochet.

A recent post on FB was about knit Opera hoods...garment terms are VERY ambiguous. When looking (looking is researching) for garment terms keep an open mind and look for possible alternative descriptive labels.  Materials used in a project may help you figure out what the garment is used for. Read to the end of the directions, and similar garments may include needed construction information.

 I found a number of crochet "caps" for women using Berlin wool. One book was printed in Edinburgh, the search now becomes can I find the same directions reprinted in other sources, such as periodicals over the 1940-1865 period?

Crochet explained and illustrated, Cornelia Mee, 1845
Pg. 14, pattern # 8

One oz. and a half of claret eight-thread German wool (sport) and half an oz. each of 2 colours of shaded wool (say amber and lilac) are required.
Make a chain with the claret wool on 84 stitches. (The whole is worked backwards and forwards, and in turning back you take the top loop of the row before.) Work 3 rows of claret. After these rows, decrease a stitch at the commencement of every row mentioned (that is, by taking the tops of 2 loops and working them as one). Work 2 rows of shaded amber, 4 of claret, 2 of lilac, 4 of claret, 2 of amber, 4 of claret, 2 of lilac, 4 of claret. Work 1 additional row of claret all along the row, working 2 stitches as 1; thus reducing the number to half of what you had in the preceding row. Do 2 rows of the amber, decreasing 1 at the beginning of each. Then 1 row more of claret, working the 2 loops together all along; 1 plain row. This finishes and is the back of the cap. Work 1 row of double crochet with the claret all the way round, working 1 stitch for each row round the back: then with claret work a row in single open crochet at the side round the ears; then 1 row of lilac, single open crochet; 1 of claret: 1 of amber: 1 of claret; 1 of lilac; and 1 of claret: then crochet it to the row of claret worked all round, which makes a double frill. Make a cord and tassels of the wools, mixed, to tie it, and also put one at the back to draw it in.

The lady's book of useful and ornamental crochet work (Edinburgh) 1848
[they use Berlin wool)
Bonnet Cap, pg161
Toque, 163
Opera Cap-Square at the Ears, 203
Elegant Opera Cap, 206
Carrige Cap, 209

Bonnet Cap [pg. 161]
You will require three skeins of white Berlin wool, and three shades of scarlet, two skeins of the lightest shade, five skeins of the middle shade and six of the last. [16 skeins]
Commence with white, make a chain of one hundred loops, work round each side in open crochet stitch, until you have it seven rows wide, always letting out at each end by putting two stitches into one hole; round the end to make it lie flat.
You now work a round of the darkest shade; then a round of the lightest shade, in working this round you put you stitch into every chain stitch instead of the large hole, you do so for a finger length [4.5”] at each end, and half way round the end to make a fullness for the border.
You now work a round with your second shade, but on the full part you catch the wool twice round the needle to make a longer loop, and put the stitch into every chain stitch, on the full part; the back, and middle of the front, are done of the open stitch same as the other rounds.
You end with the darkest shade, and work the round same as the last.
Draw a scarlet ribbon down the centre, bring it out under the border.

Toque [pg 163]
Geranium colour and white look well. Commence with white, made a chain half a yard long, you then wok a row of triple long open stitch, that is,k put the wool three times round the needle, and then draw the wool through two loops at a time until all are worked off, then make one loop, you miss every other chain stitch.
You now take your coloured wool and work of the common open stitch two rows round the white, putting four stitches into the end to make it sit flat.
You then work two rows of white, then two of the coloured, then one of white, and with two rows of the coloured wool. You put two stitches into one in working round the ends to make it sit flat.
Draw a satin ribbon through the wide row in the centre; when worn you turn back the front part a little.
Put a rosette on each side, make either of crochet work or ribbon.

Comfortable Prudence Cap. [Pg. 202]
It will require three shades of scarlet, and white.
Use a No. 14 ivory needle.
Commence with the darkest shade. Made a chain half a yard long, join it, and work two rounds of double crochet.
You now take the second shade, and work one row in open crochet, but leave twenty chain stitches for the neck part.
You now tie on your stitches into the last hole. You continue putting two stitches into the last hole in every row until finished.
You now work a while row.
You take the darkest shade, and repeat the colours in the same manner, until you have five stripes.
You now work two rounds of double crochet stitch, working along wach side and round the neck part.
Plait a string, and draw it down the first row of holes to tie under the chin.

Opera Cap-Square at the Ears, [pg. 203]
Rose colour and white Berlin wool. It will require half and ounce of each colour.
Work with needles No. 15 and No. 10.
Commence with the rose colour, and use No. 15 needle. Make a chain a little more than half a yard long.
The first row you put three long stitches into one chain stitches into one chain stitch, make one chain stitch between each three, and miss three chains betwixt each three long stitches.
Every row after the first you put the three long stitches into the open between the three long stitches in the last row.
You made a white and coloured row alternately, until you have five coloured rows and four white rows, you then work a row all round of double crochet.
You now take the white, and commence the border, and use needle No.l0.
You work it in double long crochet stitch; put two stitches in each chain stitch, and make one chain stitch between each long stitch.
You put two stitches into each chain stitch only round the ends, and about a fourth part up the front on each side. Put only one stitch into each chain stitch along the top.
You finish with a row of rose colour; put a double crochet stitch into each open, and make three chain stitches between each double stitch.
You now make two rosettes in the following manner, and sew one on each side:--
Make a chain of twenty loops with the rose colour, then put two double long stitches into each chain stitch, and make two chain stitches between each long stitch. Finish with a white row; putting a double crochet stitch into each open, and make three chain stitches between each double stitch, then draw it up.
Plait a string with the wool, and make a tassel at the end. Sew one on at each end.

Elegant Opera Cap. [206]
It will required half an ounce of shaded amber Berlin wool, and six skeins of white. Use a No. 14 crochet needle.
Commence with white; make a chain not quite half a yard long.
First Row – Open crochet.
Second Round. – Take the amber, and work along each side of the white. Put a long stitch into every chain stitch, fro a finger length up each side. Put a double crochet stitch into every other chain stitch, and makes a chain stitch betwixt each double stitch, along each side of the middle part.
Third Round – Put a long stitch into each chain stitch round each end, and up each side, but put two into each in turning the end, and then work along the middle part in the same manner as the last round.
Fourth Round. – Same as the last, but commence the double crochet stitches three or four stitches nearer the ends.
Fifth Round.—Same as the last.
Sixth Round.
Take the white, and commence the Frill. Put two double long stitches into each chain stitch round each end, and half-way up the broad part. The remainder of the broad part you put one single long stitch into each chain stitch, and along the narrow part you put a long stitch into every other chain stitch, with a chain stitch betwixt each long stitch.
Finish with double crochet row of the amber. Draw a ribbon down the open row in the centre.

Carriage Cap [Pg. 209]
It will require three shades of blue, three skeins of the darkest, six of the next shade, and half an ounce of the lightest, and three quarters of an ounce of white. Work with a needle No. 12.
Commence with white. Made a chain three half quarters long—work a row of open crochet. You then take the lightest blue, and work round each side of the white, and put four stitches into the end of the white.
Next round, take the middle shade, and work all round, putting two stitches into the end stitches to make it lie flat.
You now take the darkest shade, and work all round in the same manner as the last round. You then take the middle shade, and work all round, then the lightest, and work in the same manner also. You now work a round of double crochet of the same shade. You now take the white and commence 
First Round.
Put a double long stitch into every chain stitch, and make two chain stitches between each long stitch.    
Second Round.
Take the lightest shad of blue, make a chain of four stitches, and join them inot every open with a double crochet stitch.
Last Round.
Take the white and make four chain stitches, and join them into the chain in the last row with double crochet stitch.
You now tie the white on the Cap, a half-quarter up from the end, and two stripes from the Border.  Work round the end on the stripe in the same manner as the Border, putting two stitches into the space between the stitches on the row. You work another frill on the second stripe from the last, round the end in the same manner, so as to form three borders round the ears.
You plait a string, and draw it down the centre of the Cap, and let the sting come out below the frill to tie under the chin.

I'm going to brush up on my crochet and try making a cap/s out of this book. Some would say they would not have been make here (USA) during the 19th century as the book is from Edinburgh....and the directions may not have made it here. So I'm going to experiment...and look at period photo's for similar styles. This is going to take awhile. :)

Friday, September 27, 2013

Crotchet wristers

This one is for Deborah :)

Zion’s Herald and Wesleyan Journal, April 01, 1863
What can we do for the soldiers?

"You may like to know what was Hattie’s offering. Though only seven years old, she had learned to crotchet quickly and well, and now it was turned to a good account. Her mother, very kindly, gave her some woolen yarn, and a little help in making two pair of warm mittens and wristers. This was a great piece of work for Hattie, and all the little girl accomplished for some time after." 

"crotchet" as spelled in the article - crochet

Monday, September 16, 2013

1000 women wanted

Interesting way to get finished socks...putting down a deposit.

Cleveland mourning leader. (Cleveland OH) August 27, 1862 - Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. LOC

1000 WOMEN WANTED,--TO receive Yarn and knit into Soldiers Socks.
For each pound delivered, a pledge of 75 cents will be required, to be refunded when the Socks are returned, together with an additional amount of 75 cents for knitting the same.
107 Bank-St.

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Knitting for the soldiers

I will be attending an event I GA next week. I thought it would be nice to gather together for one hour ladies who knit or crochet goods for the soldiers.

Staunton spectator, (Staunton, VA) Jan. 5, 1864 – Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. LOC
“An army correspondent, writing from Longsteet’s corps, says there are 3,000 barefoot men in that corps alone. From Johnston’s (late Bragg’s) army, comes a piteous appeal for blankets and clothing. Lee’s army is also in need of  blankets, and not a week ago a paper, reputed to be the Government organ, called upon the ladies to devote their energies to knitting socks for Lee’s soldiers. For some weeks past, the Young Men’s Christian Association has been furnishing cotton yarn to be knit into socks for these same soldiers. Woolen yarn was not to be had. Day by day, the clothes made for the soldiers exhibit less wool and more cotton.”
Macon Daily Telegraph, (Macon, GA), April 8, 1863
A Patriotic Lady.—Mrs. S. Young, of Putnam County, Ga., has knit and donated to the Soldiers 150 pairs of Socks—also, clothed two soldiers entire from the commencement of the war up to this time, and has made numerous other contributions from her own labor. How many such women would it take to clothe our entire army?  

Macon Daily Telegraph, (Macon, GA), January 09, 1864
Knit the Socks.—We are requested by Major Hayden to say that the wool for Cobb’s Kentucky battery is now all carded and spun into yarn, waiting at E.J.Johnston & Co’s for the nimble fingers of Macon’s fair ladies to knit it into socks for the sockless men of Cobb’s Kentucky Battery. Will they not take hold of this work of charity and patriotism?

Macon Daily Telegraph and Confederate, (Macon, GA), December 06, 1864
We are informed that a quantity of yarn has been left with Mr. Burke, at the Methodist Book Store for the purpose of being knit into socks for the use of the Tennessee soldiers. These men are separated from their families and therefore cannot be provided with clothing by their wives, mothers and sisters. The ladies of Macon are urgently solicited to call at Mr. Burke’s, get the yarn and knit into socks. If every lady in Macon will devote a few hours to this work they will alleviate a great deal of suffering among the gallant soldiers from Tennessee. The socks are much needed and we trust in a few days to chronicle that hundreds of pairs are in process of making. What lady will have the honor of finishing the first pair?  

The Daily Bulletin (Winchester, TN) September 30, 1862, & Edgefield advertiser, (Edgefield SC), Sept 17, 1862,  Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. LOC
Knitting for the Soldiers.—This is an important matter, and one which we hope will engage the early and earnest attention of all the women of the country who have it in their power to aid in providing for the wants of our brave soldiers. The season for cold weather is rapidly approaching, In a very few weeks our soldiers will require their supplies of winter clothing. Among the articles they will need, and which should be furnished them with as little delay as possible, are good, warm, comfortable socks. The pittance which the soldiers receive from the Government for clothing is not enough to supply them with outer clothing alone; and hence many are unable to pay for the under-clothing which their necessities compel them to have. Last year at this time, there were thousands of fair fingers busily employed in knitting for the soldiers, and, tanks to the untiring efforts of the noble-hearted women of the South, the defenders of the country were as comfortable clad during the last winter, as could have been expected. Next winter there will be more than double the number of soldiers in the field than there was last, and renewed and redoubled exertions will be necessary in order to prevent suffering in their ranks from the ?nt [long crease in the paper] of sufficient clothing. It is the duty of those who remain at home to provide for those in the field, and we feel assured that those who have fathers, husband, sons, brothers and friends in the army, will not fail to do all the love-patriotism and duty require.

The Athens post (Athens, TN) August 30, 1861, Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. LOC 
The Vicksburg Whig says that nearly every lady, old and young, in Warren county is busily engaged knitting socks for  soldiers—and that the result of their labor will soon be collected together and sent on to the army. The worth example should be followed in every county, city and town throughout the South.

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Knitted Garters

The Workwomans Guide, 1840 - pg 255
These are chiefly worn by females, and are merely narrow strips of knitting, of three quarters of a yard long, and a nail, more or less, wide.
They are made of worsted, cotton, or soft wool; the latter is most elastic and pleasant.
For garters, set on from twelve to twenty, or even thirty stitches, according to the fineness of the material.
Knit backwards and forwards till of the proper length, when fasten off. some persons prefer a loop at the end; for which purpose, when near the end, divide the stitches equally upon two pins, and knit each pin about ten ribs, after which connect them together by binding them in fastening off.
Garters are sometimes knit by putting the material, which is fine, twice around the pin at every stitch letting the pin be very thick.
Garters are some times ribbed, at others knit, in a succession of squares of different patterns.

The Elastic Rib.
This is very suitable for cuffs and garters, as it clings or contracts to the form.
The Ladies' Knitting and Netting Book, 1840
Pg 112
Two needles No. 14, and German lambs'-wool
Cast on 18 stitches. Knit in double knitting backwards and forwards until the garter is long enough. End with a point.
The Ladies' Work-table Book, 1844
Pg 128-9
Elastic Rib
This, as its name implies, is the proper stitch for garters, or any kind of article which is wanted to fit easily, yet firmly. You are to set on any number of loops you please, and knit one row plain; the next is pearled, the two next are plain; then one pearled, and so on alternately to the end.

Monday, September 9, 2013

Knitting for the Soldiers - Union poem

Fremont journal, (Fremont, Sandusky County OH) December 13, 1861 - Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. LOC

From the Cleveland Herald
Knitting for the Soldiers.

One eve I sat beside the grate, the time I well remember
The winds were moaning round the house, for it was bleak November,
And queer, quaint shadows, large and small, upon the walls were flitting:
And I sat by this fireside, for I was busy knitting.

And I was happy! Golden hours! Ah, fondly memory lingers,
I think of that soft, woolen yarn, fast slipping through my fingers,
A soldier’s sock, of fine grey yarn, my hands were quickly forming,
And round the house with dreary moan, the wintry winds were storming.

I thought, as fast my fingers flew, and formed the stout grey stitches,
Of our brave soldiers in the camps, on breastworks and in ditches:
Of sickness, hunger, fight and death, of TOES so cold and frozen,
(I do not think our ladies could a better task have chosen.)

I thought as on the needles flew, of where the socks were going;
Would they be on the battle-field, where the life-tide was flowing?
Or would the wearer, brave and young, dead on the field be lying;
When his brave comrades charged the foe, and sent them all a flying.

Perhaps a prisoner he’ll be, in a dungeon dark and lone,
Or, in a crowed hospital, he’ll breathe his last death moan,
Or, on a slow and weary march, o’er hill and stream he’ll go;
Or, on a level plain, he’ll stand, prepared to meet the foe.

The fire burned brightly, and I thought of these poor soldiers sitting
Around their fires, in camp at night, thankful for our knitting;
As I bent my head to seam, I thought how nice ‘twould be,
If I could know whose feet would wear, the socks t’were knit by me.

But then I thought, perhaps the foe may strip our noble slain,
And all the socks they take from them, we ne’er shall see again;
“Secesh” will have them! dreadful thought! my Union sprit rose,
I WILL NOT spend my precious time, in warming “secesh” toes.

And thus I sat, and knit, and thought, my sock kept growing longer,
And love for these poor soldier boys was meanwhile growing stronger;
God bless the many fingers that are busy in the land,
A working by their firesides, to clothe our soldier bands.
They’ve left their homes, and all that’s dear, this Union fair to save,
To keep for us our happy homes, or find themselves a grave;
And we, in peace and plenty now, are by our firesides sitting,
Can we not clothe their weary feet, with socks of OUR OWN knitting !

Union song about knitting for the soldiers

The Smoky Hill and Republican Union (Junction City, KS) August 8, 1863 - Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers, LOC

A young lady in New York State sends us the following new version of “John Brown,” which is quite popular in that region. The words are pretty, and the sentiment the best we have seen adapted to this popular piece of music:

To the Ladies of the Blue Stocking Club.
By Charles Puffer.

Where the starry banners of the Union army stand,
Over hill and valley, and along the Dixie strand,
Soft appeals are coming to the ladies of the land,
For the brave, brave Volunteers.
Glory, glory, Hallelujah, &c.

Valley Forge remember, and the ashes laid below,
Tell the brave old legion of the foot prints in the snow,
Then merrily click the needles, as the echoes come and go,
For the brave, brave Volunteers.

Loving eyes are dewy as they ripple o’er with tears;
Gentle hearts are thrilling with a thousand shadowy fears;
Fairy hands are knitting for the brave Volunteers;

Tenderly we’re dreaming of the long, long ago,
The lady of her lover, and the lassie of her beau.
But every one is dreaming of the faces that we know,
In the brave, brave Volunteers.

Far away in Dixie land, when the soldiers fall,
Many a grateful tongue upon your names will call,
Breathing a farewell, and a blessing for you all,
From the brave, brave Volunteers.

Then from the Atlantic to the wide Pacific shore,
Ladies, with your loving fingers knitting evermore,
Labor for the army, as your mothers did of yore,
For the brave, brave Volunteers.

Women at War

I'm currently reading Women At War: A record of their patriotic contributions, heroism, toils and sacrifice during the Civil War by L.P. Brocket, M.D. (reprint)

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Union Knitting Army.

I'm finding some interesting stories about knitting socks for the army/soldiers.

Cleveland mourning leader (Cleveland OH) October 19, 1861 - Chronicling Historic American Newspapers LOC

Union Knitting Army.

                The ladies of the O.S. Presbyterian Church, at Pleasant Ridge, Hamilton Co., have formed themselves into what we hope may be the advance guard of a grand Knitting Army. They have pledged themselves, each and every one, to knit four pairs of woolen yarn socks, or stockings, by the first of January, 1862—two pairs by the first of November, and the remaining two by the first of January, 1862.

                Appealing to their sisters elsewhere, they say: “Let each lady pledge herself to knit four pairs by the time specified, and thereby manifest the interest and sympathy we feel for the gallant defenders of our homes and firesides, by enlisting for the war in the Union Knitting Army.”

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

More on Patriotic Socks

Daily Ohio statesman, (Columbus, OH) April 05, 1862 - Chronicling Historic American Newspapers LOC

Gifts of Yankee Lasses.
            Our brave western boys have won the hearts of the Yankee girls as well as victories over the rebels, and the St. Louis Democrat thus speaks of the cheering gifts “for the braves;”
            We have in our office, a contribution to the Sanitary Commission’s relief stores, which is a curiosity worth inspecting. It was sent here with other articles by ladies of Massachusetts, though from what precise Yankee town or village of the Bay State, we do not know. First, a pair of soft wool hose, in top of each of which is knit the flag of the Union, with its thirteen stripes, and blue field and the stars, and the flag extending down nearly to the ankle. Attached to the hose is a slip inscribed thus:

            “When hearts are true and fingers warm
            Who can resist our Yankee Boys?
            Not any base and rebel swain,
            That Freedom’s noble work destroys
            When women knit and Yankees fight,
            Who doubts the triumph of the right!”

            The other, a flannel shirt, eagle gray, of fine soft, but substantial fabric, on the body of which is wrought with the needle, the following stanzas:
            Soldier brave, will it brighten the day,
            And shorten the march on the weary way,
            To know that at home, the loving and true,
            Are knitting, and hoping and praying for you?

            Soft are their voices, when speaking your name,
            Proud are their glories when hearing your fame,
            And the gladdest hour in their lives will be
            When they greet you after the victory.

            The workmanship is neat, but the address’ “For the bravest,” might be, if such a thing could occasion contention among men who are not only brave but generous, a source of strife for the title of it, like the mythologic apple of  discord.

Starving The South

While on a vacation to visit our son and grand-dogs ...I read Starving The South: How The North Won The Civil War, By Andrew F. Smith and enjoyed it very much, it was an aspect of the war I had not considered.

Thursday, August 22, 2013

Tea Pot and Sugar Bowl

Stopped at a estate sale today and purchased (yet another) teapot and a sugar bowl. Trying to date it. Can't read the mark very well. It says CORONA  in a banner. 
F.Winkle pottery 1890 

Wednesday, August 21, 2013

Socks For Soldiers-pieces of woolen cloth

Staunton Spectator (Staunton VA) 1864 [LOC]
Socks For Soldiers
We feel called upon again to appeal in behalf of our suffering soldiers to the patriotism and kindness of the good people of this County to furnish material to make socks for our brave and bare-footed soldiers. We do not even ask for yarn, [though that, of course, is preferred] but only for pieces of woolen cloth large enough to make a covering for their feet. Every family could contribute such pieces as are now needed, and we feel that it is only necessary to state that they are wanted to ensure a sufficient supply in a short time. The ladies of this place are ready to make the pieces up into socks—the people of the country will please furnish the materials needed. A large portion of the gallant 25th Regiment is now without socks and the brave soldiers of that Regiment are, in great part, from the North-western portion of the State without the possibility of receiving relief from their friends at home. Such soldiers have a peculiar claim to the kindness of our people. Search your houses and send such pieces as mentioned above to the Book-store of Mr. R. Cowan, of Staunton, and they will soon be covering the feet of our suffering soldiers.

Monday, August 19, 2013

Carpet ravelings

What Next.--We observe that the ladies of Mobile, in keeping with the fertility of resources and industry that has immortalized their sex during the war, and making socks from carpet ravelings. They are a little heterogeneous in color, but not a whit the less warm for that, and will be most acceptable to the soldiers or to those who need them at home.

[Same story appeared in the Edgefield Advertiser (Edgefield SC) Jaunuary 13, 1864, The Daily Dispatch, (Richmond, VA)January 4, 1864]

Poem: The Soldiers Mother 1861

The Smoky Hill and Republican Union

Junction, Davis Co., Kansas, Thursday, Dec. 26, 1861
The Soldiers Mother

By the low west window dreaming,
With the lingering sunlight gleaming
Softly on her saintly brow—
Of her boy to battle marching,
Heat and thirst the loved lips parching,
Dreams she in the twilight now.

Yet with rapid fingers knitting,
In the ancient arm-chair sitting,
Musing of her soldier son—
Pausing in her thoughts of sorrow,
Wond’ring if upon the morrow
She can have the blue socks done.

Thinking of the soldiers steading
As she saw them on the landing.
Thinking how they sternly drill them—
Back and forth the needles going
From the socks. God only knowing,
If or not his feet shall fill them.

But a sound her quick ear greeting
Starts her frightened heart to beating
With a troubled throb and surge,
For she hears the church-bell tolling,
And the solemn muffled rolling
Of slow music like a dirge.

Heeds she not the stitches falling,
As with eager accents calling
Some one passing by the door
All her wild forebodings masking,
And with lips unfalt’ring asking
Whom this mournful dirge is for?

But she strives her grief to smother,
‘Tis not meet a soldier’s mother
Thus should yield to sorrow vain.
Are there not a hundred others,
Stricken, desolated mothers,
Weeping for their brave one slain?

For their country still are bleeding
Soldiers brave who will be needing
Warm socks for their valiant feet—
Feet which ne’er before the traitors,
Like the feet of some bold praters,
Bent a cowardly retreat.

Other days have waned to twilight
Since the eve when such sad heart blight
Came down on that lonely one;
Yet beside the window sitting,
With her aged fingers knitting,
Dreams she still at set of sun.

On her brow a shadow resting,
And the sunset glory cresting
Like a crown the silver hair.
Back and forth the needles going,
Inch by inch the socks are growing,
And the tears her eyes o’erflowing
Are inwrought with silent prayer.

Could men see as see the angels,
These dumb socks, like sweet evangels,
Would a wond’rous tale unfold;
Every stitch would tell its story,
And each seam would wear a glory
Fairer that refiner’s gold.

Friday, July 26, 2013

Bitterly Divided

Currently reading:/ Finished reading Aug. 16.
Bitterly Divided: The South's Inner Civil War, by David Williams

Sunday, July 7, 2013

North and South by Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell

Finished listening to: 7/12/13

North and South, by Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell - 1855

This one is difficult to listen to...every chapter is read by a different person, with different accents! :( 

Monday, July 1, 2013

Black Cotton...hose, hosiery and stockings

While searching for black cotton fabrics I stumbled across black cotton hosiery...not as obscure as I thought. I look for advertisements from different sellers and locations. Many are reprinted in newspapers through out the year, I listed one example to illustrate what was listed for sale, also if they specified "ladies' or women". When it only listed hose (no gender) may be men's. I believe most are imported and machine made as there are no references to home knit.

Edgefield Advertiser, (SC) Nov. 1859
Alexander, White, Black and Fancy Colored KID GLOVES;
Ladies Merino and Silk VESTS, with or without Sleeves
Low Priced and Super Black Silk HOSE;
.."......."......"......."....... "....Cotton..."
Black Raw Silk HOSE;
Black Moravian HOSE;
Misses' Cotton and Wool HOSE, at

(1st. col)            

Edgefield Advertiser, (SC) Aug. 1863
500Yds. Handsome English Prints;
Five Pieses English ?ONG CLOTH;
Ladies' Black Cotton HOSE;
Also a great variety of other desirable Goods,
just received by E.PENN, Agt.

(4th col)

Sunbury American, (PA) Nov. 1863 (& March 1864)

Black Glossy Silks,
4-4 Black Cashmeres;
Super Black Mohairs,
Fine Black Alpaccas,
Black and Purple Delains,
White and Black Figured Delaines,
Black Crepe Maretz,
Lupins Black all wool Delaines,
Black Silk Bereges,
Good Black Degege,
Plain Black Gingrams,
Plain Black Calicoes,
Neat Figured Black Calicoes,
Fine Black Sack Flannels,
Black Love Veils,
Jouvins Black Kid Gloves,
Black Silk Gauntletts,
Black Gloves in Variety,
Fine Mourning Handkerchiefs,
Black cotton and wool Hosiery,
Black Tibet and Wool Shawls,
    &c., &c., &c.,
A nice line of the above goods now
 pen and for sale at low prices

(4th. col)

Juliet Signal (ILL), July 1861
Our stock of Ladies' White, Brown, Slate and Black Cotton Hosiery is complete.

(2nd col.)

The Daily Dispatch, (VA) Dec. 1864
1 lot White and Black Cotton Hosiery,

(4th col)

Cleveland Morning Leader. (OH) July 1858

(lists colors to include)
Ladies Black Cotton Hose

(5th col.)

The Daily Dispatch (VA) Aug. 1858
Ladie's White, Mixed and Black Cotton Hose, at all prices

(2nd col)

Cincinnati Daily Press (OH) April 1860
1,000 pairs Ladies' Slate, Black, White and Unbleached.

 (5th col)

I have also seen advertisements for ladies cotton stockings in British newspapers.

Update...looking for earlier advertisements for black cotton, did not see any before 1841...but...never say never

 New-York Tribune.(NY) April 1841
HOSIER of every description, black and white English silk for
6d, 8s, and 12s per pair;cotton black, white and colored, both ribbed and plain.

J.H.Bockover & Co.

New-York Tribune (NY), Oct. 1841 (1842)
A complete stock comprising ever variety of each adapted to the present season.
Black Cotton Hose

Brown & Urquhart

New-York Tribune (NY), March 1843
William Hern, ...
Fine black, white and slate Cotton Hose...

Vermont Phoenix, (VT) April 1844

Spring Importaion
--Offer for sale--
Hosiery, Gloves, etc.
White, unbleached, black and colored Cotton Hose; plaine, imperial, ribbed, open work and embroidered;...

Fancy Cotton Bags, open-work and chene; [wonder what kind of bags these are???]

Burlington Free Press (VT), May 1845

New Goods
P&H.H. Doolittle have just received form New York...
Ladies white, Unbleached, black and colored Cotton Hose,...

 Daily Atlas, (Boston, MA), January 1843
CHACEGREW & CO, 79-81 Milk steet, have received by the late arrivals from England and France, One Hundred and seventy packages of new and desirable goods,....
Worsted Hosiery;
Merino      "
White and black Cotton " (hosiery)

The Civilan and Galveson City Gazette (Galveston, TX)

The subsribers respectfully inform the citizens of Galveston, and the residents to Texas in general, that the Brig Mary Barry has just arrived here form London, with a (?...)
splendid assortment of merchandize....

Comprising....Black Cotton and Worsted Hose

Weekly Houston Telegraph (Houston, TX)
Hosiery, Gloves, etc.
Comprising...Ladies white and fancy cotton hose embroidered; black, cotton and worsted hose....

The Southern Patriot, (Charleston, SC) March, 1843
Package and Lot Sale
By Dick & Holmes...
Cases White, Slate and Black Cotton Stockings...

The Southern Patriot, (Charleston, SC) April, 1843

Hosiery, Gloves and Domestics
Ladies' white and black Cotton HOSE,...

New-Hampshire Gazette (Portsmouth, NH) July, 1844

Mourning Goods...
Super Black Gotton Hose, open work, ribbed and plain...

Southern Patriot, (Charleston, SC) Jan. 1845

1 case Women's good quality fine Black Cotton Stockings, at 25 cents
1 case Women's extra heavy fine Black Cotton Stockings...

Mordeci & Colburn

Southern Patriot, (Charleston, SC) April, 1845

English Hosiery & Gloves
Ladies white Cotton, plain and open work
Ladies colored and black Cotton
Misses' white Cotton, plain and open work
Misses' colored and Black Cotton...

Clarken & Tevlin

Southern Patriot, (Charleston, SC) Feb.1846

Cheap Spring Goods,
Ketchum & Thomas...
White and Black Cotton Hose, at 12 1/2

The Boston Daily Atlas (MA) April, 1848
By Whitwells & Seaver
2 cases White and black Cotton Hosiery.

Daily Atlas (Boston, MA) May, 1850
Hosiery, &c., &c.
Haughton, Sawyer & CO...
Women's white and mixed col'd Cotton Hose'
Women's black Mor (?)  col'd Hose
Women's blue mixed and slate col'd Hose
Women's (stout ?) ribbed black Cotton Hose
Women's Imperial ribbed, stlate col'd, white and black.

The Constitution (Middletown, CT) July 1852

New Goods
50 doz. Cotton Hose, 6 1-4 cts,
Black Cotton Hose, 6d.

The Boston Daily Atlas (MA) March, 1855

By Edward F. Hall
Dry and Fancy Goods and Woolens...
Consisting of a large assortment of ladies' white, brown mixed and black cotton Hosiery-white and mixed ribbed do- misses white and slate cotton Hose-...

The Macon Daily Telegraph, (GA) Jan. 1864
Just Received from Late
Package Sales...
Ladies' White and Black Cotton and Silk Hose

Sunday, June 30, 2013

Cotton Stockings

While listening to yet another audio book, this one from 1862.  I started knitting another pair of mid-19th century cotton stockings, these are worn below the knee. It has been a challenge to find an equivalent cotton to knit with. I think I may have found a suitable cotton. I am using cotton butchers twine in 3 ply (35wpi), a typical ply for the period. The needles are 000 dps and the gauge is 11 spi.

The first photo is of an original stocking with my sample on top.

3 ply cotton butchers twine 
  It is my intent to complete a pair by summers end.....I do get a quite a lot of knitting completed when listening to audio books  :)

Update 7/03/13 Shaping the leg begun, 6 1/4" knit.

Still growing :)

July 20, 2013 started foot

Update: one completed and the second stocking less than 5" to go on the foot and toe  :)

Just need to weave in some ends and block! :)

Wednesday, June 26, 2013


Here are just a few "advertisements" for black goods, mourning calicoes, lawns and muslin etc. These are from the Library of Congress. If you have access to other newspaper data bases try the same term searches. Sometimes we have not "seen" an original object to document but reading period advertisements lets you "see" what was offered for sale.

The Nashville Daily Union, (Tenn.) November 1863

Corner of Deaderick and the Square.;
The Finest Assortment of Goods in the City

[(lists goods for sale) to include:

75 PIECES of solid black and black and white Calicoes, of the neatest patterns in market.

A NEW style of mourning calicoes,


Edgefield Advertiser, (SC) Nov. 1857

HAS now in store one of the best and most fashionable stocks of DRY GOODS ever brought to Augusta, and he solicits an inspection of them by his friends and the bublic. Being satisfied with very SMALL PROFITS, he is confident that his stock will be found CHEAPER than that of any other in the Trade.
The following disireable styles of goods are to be found in his stock:

[under CALICOES;]
A large stock of Mourning CALICOES;


Cleveland Morning Leader (OH), October 1860

Mourning Calicos,



Ashtabula Weekly Telegraph, (OH) July 1860

A FULL and complete assortment of DRESS GOODS, among which are Challi DeLaines, Muslin-Delains, Foulard, Challis, Lawns Berages, Poil De Cheore, Plainds, Mourning Lawns and Challis, Black and Fancy Silks, some splendid patterns, and very low.
Can be found at ROOT & MORRISON'S


Raftsman's Journal (PA), June 1858
NEW FIRM, NEW ARRANGEMENTS, AND NEW GOODS.--Just arriving and being opened by the new firm of Moore and Etzwiiler, a large and well selected stock of GOODS,
comprising a splendind assortment of Swisses, Bishop Lawns, Plaid Muslins, Cambries, Delaine Robes, Lawn Robes, Mourning and Fancy Lawns in great variety...



The Chattanooga Daily Rebel (Tenn) March 1863
ON Tuesday, the 10th of March, 1863
J.JACOBE,  Auctioneer.

5000 yards elegant Lawns,
2000 yards mourning Muslin,...


"Black + White"

CHRISTIAN & LATHROP would invite the especial attention of families to their stock of Mourning Goods, of the best makes:
...Black and Black and White Lawns and Organdies    Ginghams


Fayetteville Observer, (Tenn) Sept. 1857

T.C. Goodrich.
list of assorted goods.... to include;
Muslins, painted Lawns, black and white Lawns, black and white Muslins...


Staunton Spectator, (VA) April 1864
2000 yds, 4-4 Brown Cotton, 50 pads Cotton yarn, No. 10 to 12 300 yds, Calico, light, dark, black and white, 5 pieces Lawn, fancy and black and white, 160 yds....


The Daily Dispatch, (VA) Jan. 1865
Just received and for sale at No. 183 Broad street...
3000 yards BLACK WHITE LAWNS,...


Saturday, June 22, 2013

Store bought hosiery 1863

The Nashville Daily Union (Nashville, Tenn.) November 14, 1863
Corner of Deaderick and the Square.;
The Finest Assortment of Goods in the City
[(lists goods for sale) But the following caught my eye...
Gloves & Hosiery.
A full and complete assortment of kid, ? thread, silk, cloth, buck gloves. Also ringwood, berlin and buck gauntlets. Black slate fleeced silk hose, lama wool, aplacca, white fleeced, white and grey merino and wool ribbed hose, of the very best qualities. Also a handsome assortment of balmoral hose.
Library of Congress

3rd col. bottom Gloves & Hosiery. "?" I think is lile or lisle thread...wondering if "lama" is supposed to be lambs wool but there is no mistaking alpacca!

What did "they" really do....

Here is an interesting article. I enjoy reading "household" books of the period, they explain how to do "stuff" in the home. This article discusses some of the things that are really done! 

1863 American Agriculturist
Small Leaks in the Household Ship
            A thousand worm holes, that will each admit scarcely a gallon of water during ten hours, will much sooner water-log a ship than a large hole through which is poured in a gallon a minute. In the financial affairs of a family, though the large outgoes may be canvassed and avoided, the whole income may be dribbled away, and no advance be made toward competency, wealth, or position. As a rule, the financial success of any family depends more upon the economy of the wife, than upon the earnings or business income of the husband.

—Mrs. Haskell, in her recently issued “Household Encycopaedia,” throws together some of the small leaks in a household ship, which we copy for a double purpose; 1st, to show the men that their wives have a multitude of cares, of little details, to look after—generally far more items than occur in man’s business pursuits; and 2nd, to perhaps in some cases indicate to housewives details that they may not have thought of before:--“Much waste is experienced in the boiling etc., of meats. Unless watched, the cook will throw out the water without letting it cool to take off the fat, or scrape the dripping pan into the swill-pail. This grease is useful in many ways. It can be burned in lamps mixes with lard; or when no pork has been boiled with it, made into candles. 

When pork is boiled alone, it will do to fry cakes, if cleansed. Again, bits of meat are thrown out which would make hashed meat, or hash. The flour is sifted in a wasteful manner, or the bread-pan left with dough sticking to it. Pie crust is left and laid by to sour, instead of making a few tarts for tea, etc. Cake batter is thrown out because but little is left. Cold puddings are considered good for nothing, when often they can be steamed for the next day, or, as in case of rice, made over in other forms. Vegetables are thrown away that would warm for breakfast nicely. 

Dish towels are thrown down where nice can destroy them. Soap is left in water to dissolve, or more used than is necessary. Ft Bath brick, whiting, rotten stone, etc., are used, much is wasted uselessly. The scrub brush is left in water, pails scorched by the stove, tubs and barrels left in the sun to dry and fall apart, chamber pails allowed to rust, tins not dried, and iron-ware rusted; nice knives used for cooking in the kitchen, silver spoons are used to scrape kettles, or forks to toast bread. 

Rinsing of sweetmeats, and skimmings of syrup, which make good vinegar, are thrown out; cream is allowed to mould, and spoil; mustard to dry in the pot, and vinegar to corrode the castor; tea, roasted coffee, pepper, and spices, to stand open and lose their strength. The molasses jug loses the cork, and the flies take possession. Sweetmeats are opened and forgotten. Vinegar is drawn in a basin, and allowed to stand, until both basin and vinegar are spoiled. Sugar is spilled from the barrel, coffee from the sack, and tea from the chest. Different sauces are made too sweet, and both sauce and sugar wasted. Dried fruit has not been taken care of in season, and becomes wormy. The vinegar on pickles loses strength, or leaks out, and the pickles become soft. Potatoes in the cellar grow, and the sprouts are not removed until they become worthless. Apples decay for want of looking over. Pork spoils for want of salt, and beef because the brine wants scalding. Hams become tainted, or filled with vermin, for want of the right protection. Dried beef becomes so hard it can’t be cut. Cheese moulds, and is eaten by mice or vermin. Lard is not well tried in the Fall, and becomes tainted. Butter spoils for want of being well made at first. Bones are burned that will make soup. 

Ashes are thrown out carelessly, endangering the premises, and being wasted. Servants leave a light and fire burning in the kitchen, when they are out all the evening. Clothes are whipped to pieces in the wind; fine cambrics rubbed on the board, and laces torn in starching. Brooms are never hung up, and soon are spoiled. Carpets are swept with stubs, hardly fit to scrub the kitchen, and good new brooms used for scrubbing. Towels are used in place of holders, and good sheets to iron on, taking a fresh one every week, thus scorching nearly all in the house. Fluid if used, is left uncorked, endangering the house, and wasting the alcohol. Caps are left from lamps, rendering the fluid worthless by evaporation. Table linen is thrown carelessly down and is eaten by mice, or put away damp and is mildewed; or the fruit stains are forgotten, and the stains washed in. Table-cloths and napkins used as dish wipers; mats forgotten to be put under hot dishes; teapots melted by the stove; water forgotten in pitchers, and allowed to freeze in winter; slops for cow and pig never saved; china used to feed cats and dogs on; and in many other ways. a careless and inexperienced housekeeper will waste, without heeding the hard-earned wages of her husband; when she really thinks, because she buys on fine clothes, makes the old ones last, and cooks plainly, she is a most superior housekeeper.”—The next time an unthinking husband is disposed to be severe because some trifling matter has been neglected, he should “put that in his pipe and smoke it.”

Wednesday, June 5, 2013

Ruth, by Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, 1853

Finished 6/10/2013
This story was the best so far, not a dry eye at the end!!!!!
Ruth, by Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, 1853

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

Mary Barton, byElizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, 1848

Finished listening 6/05/2013
Mary Barton
by Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, 1848
38 chapters

Monday, May 27, 2013

Cousin Phillis, 1864

Finished listening to (it was a short story of 8 sections):
Cousin Phillis, 1864
by Elizabeth Gaskell

Friday, May 10, 2013

The Wide, Wide World by Elizabeth Wetherell 1850

Finished listening 5/27/13
The Wide, Wide World by Elizabeth Wetherell / Susan Warner
1850 - 52 chapters

Sunday, May 5, 2013

The Lamplighter, 1854

Finished 5/10/2013

The Lamplighter
by Maria Susanna Cummins, 1854
50 chapters

Tuesday, April 30, 2013

The Hidden Hand, ByE.D.E.N. Southworth

Finished 5/4-2013
Wonderful story!!!! It has a heroine, hero's, innocence, happiness and sadness and villainy,  villainy, villainy!

The Hidden Hand,  ByE.D.E.N. Southworth
Originally serialized in the New York Ledger 1958 (A Celebration of Women Writers.
61 Chapters

Sunday, April 28, 2013

The Shirley Letters from California Mines in 1851-52

I am thoroughly enjoying listening to audio books instead of sitting in front of the TV...or what my dad always called the boob tube. I have also been busily sewing spectacle cases for an upcoming Civil War event...mainstream but out of our local area. A friend runs a sutlery and I'm going to help out and sell (hopefully) a few things I have made.

  The Shirley Letters from California Mines in 1851-52,
23 Chapters

Thursday, April 18, 2013

Queechy, by Susan Warner

Finished 4/24/13.

Queechy, by Susan Warner, 1852
54 chapters

Monday, April 15, 2013

Ruth Hall by Fanny Fern

Finished listening 4/16/2013. Great book! Love books by Fanny Fern 

Listening to:
Ruth Hall by Fanny Fern, 1854

Monday, April 8, 2013

More on.....paper carpets

An Encyclopædia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture and Furniture, London 1839

Paper Carpets are formed by cutting out and sewing together pieces of linen, cotton, Scotch gauze, or any similar material, &c., to the size and form required; then stretching the prepared cloth on the floor of a large room, and carefully pasting it round to be previously wetted. When the cloth thus fixed is dry, lay on it two or more coats of strong paper, breaking joint, and finish with coloured or hanging paper, according to fancy. Centre or corner pieces, cut out of remnants of papers, which may be bought for a mere trifle, may be laid on a self-coloured ground, and the whole surrounded by a border; or any other method adopted which may suit the taste or circumstances of the occupier, or accord with the other furniture of the room.

When the carpet is thus prepared, and quite dry, it should receive two coats of glue, or size made form the shreds of skins, such as is used by carvers and gilders. This size should be put on as warm as possible, and care should be taken that no part of the carpet be left untouched by it; otherwise the varnish to be afterwards laid on will sink into the paper, and spoil it. When the size is perfectly dry, the carpet should have one or more coats of boiled oil; and when that is dry, a coat of copal or any other varnish. The varnish is not absolutely essential, as boiled oil has been found to answer very well without it: but where oil only is used, it requires several more coats to be applied, and takes a much longer time to dry. These carpets are portable, and will roll up with about the same ease as oilcloth. They are very durable, are easily cleaned; and, if made of well-chosen patterns, have a very handsome appearance.

Where labour is cheap, the cost will be very trifling; the materials being of little value, and the expense consisting chiefly in the time requisite to put them together. Where cloth cannot be easily procured, the carpet may be made by pasting paper to painted boards; when, by repeated coats of paper, it is become strong and firm, it will separate from the paint, and will be as durable as if mounted on any kind of cloth. For earth, brick, or stone floors, in order to render them impervious to damp, these carpets may be made with two faces, by pasting paper to both sides of the cloth which forms their basis, and well oiling or varnishing them on the under as well as upper surface: they may also be bound with leather or any strong  substance, to prevent moisture from penetration to the paste.

The paste used in the preparation of these carpets ought to be very strong, and is best when beer or sweet wort is substituted for common water. It must be keep free from lumps, and, when gum or size employed in the printing of them, to enable them to withstand the effects fo the washing over with warm size. If printed in oil, a stong coat of size should be given to the back to prevent the oil from penetrating through the paper, otherwise it cannot be pasted to linen, cotton, or any thing else. Papers printed in oil will not require any size before they receive the finishing coats of boiled oil and varnish. When varnished on one side only, they ought to be rolled up with that side outwards, to prevent its cracking. (London Jour. of Arts and Sciences.) Paper carpets would perhaps be better for geographical subjects, than carpets formed of any material produced by the loom. We have before suggested the idea of geographical, natural history, and other scientific papers, for the walls of apartments; and, if these were once made, they might be transferred to paper carpets at pleasure.

Patents for inventions. by Patent office (London) 1876
A.D. 1865, July 19.--No. 1873
Artificial Leather, Floorcloth

PLATT, Anson Henry.--(Provisional protection only.)--"The
"    use and application of paper printed or otherwise ornamented with water colors for covering floors and other analogous purposes as a substitute for carpets and oilcloths, and of an improved coating or varnish to be applied to the same to protect its surface from injury and wear." The inventor makes three varieties of "paper carpet," which he names stationary, loose, and portable; the first is to be pasted to the floor, the second to be tacked on, the third to be put down in strips.

    The base of each is a stout paper, varying in quality according to the variety to be made. The surface is an ornamental paper "figured, printed, or tinted with water colors," and pasted on to the base. The portable variety generally consists of "a thick heavy paper, of good stock so as to be tough, firm, and of handsome texture," make in rolls of any required width and colour, figured or printed with waterproof colours; such a paper does not require a face paper.

    The protecting coverings consist of (1) about 3 coats of "sizing of white or clarified glue" made by dissolving about 8 oz. of glue in 1 gallon of hot water; and (2) from 3 to 6 coats of a varnish composed of about 3 parts of a light coloured copal varnish and 1 part of light coloured boiled linseed oil: this mixture is "tempered with benzine or spirits of turpentine "till brought to the proper consistence to be spread with a flat soft brush."

UPDATE 6/20/13
 Mrs. Hale's Receipts for the Million
Sarah Josepha Buell Hale
Cheap Carpeting.--Sew together strips of the cheapest cotton cloth, of the size of the room, and tack the edges to the floor. Then paper the cloth, as you would the side of a room, with any sort or room paper. After being well dried, give it two coats of varnish, and your carpet is finished. It can be washed like carpets, without injury, retains its gloss, and, on chambers or sleeping rooms, where it will not meet rough usage, will last for two years, as good as new.